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R.A. Serway, College Physics, 9th edition, Brooks Cole 2011
1. A weight lifter lifts a 350-N set of weights from ground level to a position over his head, a vertical distance of 2.00 m. How much work does the weight lifter do, assuming he moves the weights at constant speed?
2. In 1990 Walter Arfeuille of Belgium lifted a 281.5-kg object through a distance of 17.1 cm using only his teeth. (a) How much work did Arfeuille do on the object? (b) What magnitude force did he exert on the object during the lift, assuming the force was constant?
3. The record number of boat lifts, including the boat and its ten crew members, was achieved by Sami Heinonen and Juha Räsänen of Sweden in 2000. They lifted a total mass of 653.2 kg approximately 4 in. off the ground a total of 24 times. Estimate the total mechanical work done by the two men in lifting the boat 24 times, assuming they applied the same force to the boat during each lift. (Neglect any work they may have done allowing the boat to drop back to the ground.)
4. A shopper in a supermarket pushes a cart with a force of 35 N directed at an angle of 25° below the horizontal. The force is just sufficient to overcome various frictional forces, so the cart moves at constant speed. (a) Find the work done by the shopper as she moves down a 50.0-m length aisle. (b) What is the net work done on the cart? Why? (c) The shopper goes down the next aisle, pushing horizontally and maintaining the same speed as before. If the work done by frictional forces doesn’t change, would the shopper’s applied force be larger, smaller, or the same? What about the work done on the cart by the shopper?
5. Starting from rest, a 5.00-kg block slides 2.50 m down a rough 30.0° incline. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the incline is μk = 0.436. Determine (a) the work done by the force of gravity, (b) the work done by the friction force between block and incline, and (c) the work done by the normal force. (d) Qualitatively, how would the answers change if a shorter ramp at a steeper angle were used to span the same vertical height?
6. A horizontal force of 150 N is used to push a 40.0-kg packing crate a distance of 6.00 m on a rough horizontal surface. If the crate moves at constant speed,
find (a) the work done by the 150-N force and (b) the coefficient of kinetic friction between the crate and surface.
7. A sledge loaded with bricks has a total mass of 18.0 kg and is pulled at constant speed by a rope inclined at 20.0° above the horizontal. The sledge moves a distance of 20.0 m on a horizontal surface. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the sledge and surface is 0.500. (a) What is the tension in the rope? (b) How much work is done by the rope on the sledge? (c) What is the mechanical energy lost due to friction?
8. A block of mass m = 2.50 kg is pushed a distance d = 2.20 m along a frictionless horizontal table by a constant applied force of magnitude F = 16.0 N directed at an angle θ = 25.0° below the horizontal as shown in Figure P5.8. Determine the work done by (a) the applied force, (b) the normal force exerted by the table, (c) the force of gravity, and (d) the net force on the block.
9. A mechanic pushes a 2.50 3×103-kg car from rest to a speed of v, doing 5000 J of work in the process. During this time, the car moves 25.0 m. Neglecting friction between car and road, find (a) v and (b) the horizontal force exerted on the car.
10. A 7.00-kg bowling ball moves at 3.00 m/s. How fast must a 2.45-g Ping-Pong ball move so that the two balls have the same kinetic energy?
11. A 65.0-kg runner has a speed of 5.20 m/s at one instant during a long-distance event. (a) What is the runner’s kinetic energy at this instant? (b) If he doubles his speed to reach the finish line, by what factor does his kinetic energy change?
12. A worker pushing a 35.0-kg wooden crate at a constant speed for 12.0 m along a wood floor does 350 J of work by applying a constant horizontal force of magnitude F0 on the crate. (a) Determine the value of F0. (b) If the worker now applies a force greater than F0, describe the subsequent motion of the crate. (c) Describe what would happen to the crate if the applied force is less than F0.
13. A 70-kg base runner begins his slide into second base when he is moving at a speed of 4.0 m/s. The coefficient of friction between his clothes and Earth is 0.70. He slides so that his speed is zero just as he reaches the base. (a) How much mechanical energy is lost due to friction acting on the runner? (b) How far does he slide?
14. A running 62-kg cheetah has a top speed of 32 m/s. (a) What is the cheetah’s maximum kinetic energy? (b) Find the cheetah’s speed when its kinetic energy is one half of the value found in part (a).
15. A 7.80-g bullet moving at 575 m/s penetrates a tree trunk to a depth of 5.50 cm. (a) Use work and energy considerations to find the average frictional force that stops the bullet. (b) Assuming the frictional force is constant, determine how much time elapses between the moment the bullet enters the tree and the moment it stops moving.
16. A 0.60-kg particle has a speed of 2.0 m/s at point A and a kinetic energy of 7.5 J at point B. What is (a) its kinetic energy at A? (b) Its speed at point B? (c) The total work done on the particle as it moves from A to B?
17. A large cruise ship of mass 6.50 3×107 kg has a speed of 12.0 m/s at some instant. (a) What is the ship’s kinetic energy at this time? (b) How much work is required to stop it? (c) What is the magnitude of the constant force required to stop it as it undergoes a displacement of 2.50 km?
18. A man pushing a crate of mass m = 92.0 kg at a speed of v = 0.850 m/s encounters a rough horizontal surface of length, l = 0.65 m as in Figure P5.18. If the coefficient of kinetic friction between the crate and rough surface is 0.358 and he exerts a constant horizontal force of 275 N on the crate, find (a) the magnitude and direction of the net force on the crate while it is on the rough surface, (b) the net work done on the crate while it is on the rough surface, and (c) the speed of the crate when it reaches the end of the rough surface.
19. A 0.20-kg stone is held 1.3 m above the top edge of a water well and then dropped into it. The well has a depth of 5.0 m. Taking y = 0 at the top edge of the well, what is the gravitational potential energy of the stone–Earth system (a) before the stone is released and (b) when it reaches the bottom of the well. (c) What is the change in gravitational potential energy of the system from release to reaching the bottom of the well?
20. When a 2.50-kg object is hung vertically on a certain light spring described by Hooke’s law, the spring stretches 2.76 cm. (a) What is the force constant of the spring? (b) If the 2.50-kg object is removed, how far will the spring stretch if a 1.25-kg block is hung on it? (c) How much work must an external agent do to stretch the same spring 8.00 cm from its unstretched position?
21. In a control system, an accelerometer consists of a 4.70-g object sliding on a calibrated horizontal rail. A low-mass spring attaches the object to a flange at one end of the rail. Grease on the rail makes static friction negligible, but rapidly damps out vibrations of the sliding object. When subject to a steady acceleration of 0.800g, the object should be at a location 0.500 cm away from its equilibrium position. Find the force constant of the spring required for the calibration to be correct.
22. A 60.0-kg athlete leaps straight up into the air from a trampoline with an initial speed of 9.0 m/s. The goal of this problem is to find the maximum height she attains and her speed at half maximum height. (a) What are the interacting objects and how do they interact? (b) Select the height at which the athlete’s speed is 9.0 m/s as y = 0. What is her kinetic energy at this point? What is the gravitational potential energy associated with the athlete? (c) What is her kinetic energy at maximum height? What is the gravitational potential energy associated with the athlete? (d) Write a general equation for energy conservation in this case and solve for the maximum height. Substitute and obtain a numerical answer. (e) Write the general equation for energy conservation and solve for the velocity at half the maximum height. Substitute and obtain a numerical answer.
23. A 2 100-kg pile driver is used to drive a steel I-beam into the ground. The pile driver falls 5.00 m before coming into contact with the top of the beam, and it drives the beam 12.0 cm farther into the ground as it comes to rest. Using energy considerations, calculate the average force the beam exerts on the pile driver while the pile driver is brought to rest.
24. Two blocks are connected by a light string that passes over two frictionless pulleys as in Figure P5.24. The block of mass m2 is attached to a spring of force constant k and m1 > m2. If the system is released from rest, and the spring is initially not stretched or compressed, find an expression for the maximum displacement d of m2.
25. A daredevil on a motorcycle leaves the end of a ramp with a speed of 35.0 m/s as in Figure P5.25. If his speed is 33.0 m/s when he reaches the peak of the path, what is the maximum height that he reaches? Ignore friction and air resistance.
26. Truck suspensions often have “helper springs” that engage at high loads. One such arrangement is a leaf spring with a helper coil spring mounted on the axle, as shown in Figure P5.26 (page 160). When the main leaf spring is compressed by distance y0, the helper spring engages and then helps to support any additional load. Suppose the leaf spring constant is 5.25×105 N/m, the helper spring constant is 3.60×105 N/m, and y0 = 0.500 m. (a) What is the compression of the leaf spring for a load of 5.00×105 N? (b) How much work is done in compressing the springs?
27. The chin-up is one exercise that can be used to strengthen the biceps muscle. This muscle can exert a force of approximately 800 N as it contracts a distance of 7.5 cm in a 75-kg male. How much work can the biceps muscles (one in each arm) perform in a single contraction? Compare this amount of work with the energy required to lift a 75-kg person 40 cm in performing a chin-up. Do you think the biceps muscle is the only muscle involved in performing a chin-up?
28. A flea is able to jump about 0.5 m. It has been said that if a flea were as big as a human, it would be able to jump over a 100-story building! When an animal jumps, it converts work done in contracting muscles into gravitational potential energy (with some steps in between). The maximum force exerted by a muscle is proportional to its cross-sectional area, and the work done by the muscle is this force times the length of contraction. If we magnified a flea by a factor of 1000, the cross section of its muscle would increase by 10002 and the length of contraction would increase by 1000. How high would this “superflea” be able to jump?
29. A 50.0-kg projectile is fired at an angle of 30.0° above the horizontal with an initial speed of 1.20×102 m/s from the top of a cliff 142 m above level ground, where the ground is taken to be y = 0. (a) What is the initial total mechanical energy of the projectile? (b) Suppose the projectile is traveling 85.0 m/s at its maximum height of y = 427 m. How much work has been done on the projectile by air friction? (c) What is the speed of the projectile immediately before it hits the ground if air friction does one and a half times as much work on the projectile when it is going down as it did when it was going up?
30. A projectile of mass m is fired horizontally with an initial speed of v0 from a height of h above a flat, desert surface. Neglecting air friction, at the instant before the projectile hits the ground, find the following in terms of m, v0, h, and g: (a) the work done by the force of gravity on the projectile, (b) the change in kinetic energy of the projectile since it was fired, and (c) the final kinetic energy of the projectile. (d) Are any of the answers changed if the initial angle is changed?
31. A horizontal spring attached to a wall has a force constant of 850 N/m. A block of mass 1.00 kg is attached to the spring and oscillates freely on a horizontal, frictionless surface as in Active Figure 5.20. The initial goal of this problem is to find the velocity at the equilibrium point after the block is released. (a) What objects constitute the system, and through what forces do they interact? (b) What are the two points of interest? (c) Find the energy stored in the spring when the mass is stretched 6.00 cm from equilibrium and again when the mass passes through equilibrium after being released from rest. (d) Write the conservation of energy equation for this situation and solve it for the speed of the mass as it passes equilibrium. Substitute to obtain a numerical value. (e) What is the speed at the halfway point? Why isn’t it half the speed at equilibrium?
32. A 50-kg pole vaulter running at 10 m/s vaults over the bar. Her speed when she is above the bar is 1.0 m/s. Neglect air resistance, as well as any energy absorbed by the pole, and determine her altitude as she crosses the bar.
33. A child and a sled with a combined mass of 50.0 kg slide down a frictionless slope. If the sled starts from rest and has a speed of 3.00 m/s at the bottom, what is the height of the hill?
34. Hooke’s law describes a certain light spring of unstretched length 35.0 cm. When one end is attached to the top of a door frame and a 7.50-kg object is hung from the other end, the length of the spring is 41.5 cm. (a) Find its spring constant. (b) The load and the spring are taken down. Two people pull in opposite directions on the ends of the spring, each with a force of 190 N. Find the length of the spring in this situation.
35. A 0.250-kg block along a horizontal track has a speed of 1.50 m/s immediately before colliding with a light spring of force constant 4.60 N/m located at the end of the track. (a) What is the spring’s maximum compression if the track is frictionless? (b) If the track is not frictionless, would the spring’s maximum compression be greater than, less than, or equal to the value obtained in part (a)?
36. A block of mass m = 5.00 kg is released from rest from point A and slides on the frictionless track shown in Figure P5.36. Determine (a) the block’s speed at points B and C and (b) the net work done by the gravitational force on the block as it moves from point from A to C.
37. Tarzan swings on a 30.0-m-long vine initially inclined at an angle of 37.0° with the vertical. What is his speed at the bottom of the swing (a) if he starts from rest? (b) If he pushes off with a speed of 4.00 m/s?
38. Two blocks are connected by a light string that passes over a frictionless pulley as in Figure P5.38. The system is released from rest while m2 is on the floor and m1 is a distance h above the floor. (a) Assuming m1 > m2, find an expression for the speed of m1 just as it reaches the floor. (b) Taking m1 = 6.5 kg, m2 = 4.2 kg, and h = 3.2 m, evaluate your answer to part (a), and (c) find the speed of each block when m1 has fallen a distance of 1.6 m.
39. The launching mechanism of a toy gun consists of a spring of unknown spring constant, as shown in Figure P5.39a. If the spring is compressed a distance of 0.120 m and the gun fired vertically as shown, the gun can launch a 20.0-g projectile from rest to a maximum height of 20.0 m above the starting point of the projectile. Neglecting all resistive forces, (a) describe the mechanical energy transformations that occur from the time the gun is fired until the projectile reaches its maximum height, (b) determine the spring constant, and (c) find the speed of the projectile as it moves through the equilibrium position of the spring (where x = 0), as shown in Figure P5.39b.
40. (a) A block with a mass m is pulled along a horizontal surface for a distance x by a constant force F at an angle θ with respect to the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between block and table is μk. Is the force exerted by friction equal to μk mg? If not, what is the force exerted by friction? (b) How much work is done by the friction force and by F? (Don’t forget the signs.) (c) Identify all the forces that do no work on the block. (d) Let m = 2.00 kg, x = 4.00 m, θ = 37.0°, F = 15.0 N, and μk = 0.400, and find the answers to parts (a) and (b).
41. (a) A child slides down a water slide at an amusement park from an initial height h. The slide can be considered frictionless because of the water flowing down it. Can the equation for conservation of mechanical energy be used on the child? (b) Is the mass of the child a factor in determining his speed at the bottom of the slide? (c) The child drops straight down rather than following the curved ramp of the slide. In which case will he be traveling faster at ground level? (d) If friction is present, how would the conservation-of-energy equation be modified? (e) Find the maximum speed of the child when the slide is frictionless if the initial height of the slide is 12.0 m.
42. An airplane of mass 1.50×104 kg is moving at 60.0 m/s. The pilot then increases the engine’s thrust to 7.50×104 N. The resistive force exerted by air on the airplane has a magnitude of 4.00×104 N. (a) Is the work done by the engine on the airplane equal to the change in the airplane’s kinetic energy after it travels through some distance through the air? Is mechanical energy conserved? Explain. (b) Find the speed of the airplane after it has traveled 5.00×102 m. Assume the airplane is in level flight throughout the motion.
43. The system shown in Figure P5.43 is used to lift an object of mass m = 76.0 kg. A constant downward force of magnitude F is applied to the loose end of the rope such that the hanging object moves upward at constant speed. Neglecting the masses of the rope and pulleys, find (a) the required value of F, (b) the tensions T1, T2 , and T3, and (c) the work done by the applied force in raising the object a distance of 1.80 m.
44. A 25.0-kg child on a 2.00-m-long swing is released from rest when the ropes of the swing make an angle of 30.0° with the vertical. (a) Neglecting friction, find the child’s speed at the lowest position. (b) If the actual speed of the child at the lowest position is 2.00 m/s, what is the mechanical energy lost due to friction?
45. A 2.1×103 -kg car starts from rest at the top of a 5.0-m-long driveway that is inclined at 20° with the horizontal. If an average friction force of 4.0×103 N impedes the motion, find the speed of the car at the bottom of the driveway.
46. A child of mass m starts from rest and slides without friction from a height h along a curved waterslide (Fig. P5.46). She is launched from a height h/5 into the pool. (a) Is mechanical energy conserved? Why? (b) Give the gravitational potential energy associated with the child and her kinetic energy in terms of mgh at the following positions: the top of the waterslide, the launching point, and the point where she lands in the pool. (c) Determine her initial speed v0 at the launch point in terms of g and h. (d) Determine her maximum airborne height ymax in terms of h, g, and the horizontal speed at that height, v0x. (e) Use the x-component of the answer to part (c) to eliminate v0 from the answer to part (d), giving the height ymax in terms of g, h, and the launch angle θ. (f) Would your answers be the same if the waterslide were not frictionless? Explain.
47. A skier starts from rest at the top of a hill that is inclined 10.5° with respect to the horizontal. The hillside is 200 m long, and the coefficient of friction between snow and skis is 0.075 0. At the bottom of the hill, the snow is level and the coefficient of friction is unchanged. How far does the skier glide along the horizontal portion of the snow before coming to rest?
48. In a circus performance, a monkey is strapped to a sled and both are given an initial speed of 4.0 m/s up a 20° inclined track. The combined mass of monkey and sled is 20 kg, and the coefficient of kinetic friction between sled and incline is 0.20. How far up the incline do the monkey and sled move?
49. An 80.0-kg skydiver jumps out of a balloon at an altitude of 1000 m and opens the parachute at an altitude of 200.0 m. (a) Assuming that the total retarding force on the diver is constant at 50.0 N with the parachute closed and constant at 3600 N with the parachute open, what is the speed of the diver when he lands on the ground? (b) Do you think the skydiver will get hurt? Explain. (c) At what height should the parachute be opened so that the final speed of the skydiver when he hits the ground is 5.00 m/s? (d) How realistic is the assumption that the total retarding force is constant? Explain.
50. A skier of mass 70 kg is pulled up a slope by a motor driven cable. (a) How much work is required to pull him 60 m up a 30° slope (assumed frictionless) at a constant speed of 2.0 m/s? (b) What power (expressed in hp) must a motor have to perform this task?
51. A 3.50-kN piano is lifted by three workers at constant speed to an apartment 25.0 m above the street using a pulley system fastened to the roof of the building. Each worker is able to deliver 165 W of power, and the pulley system is 75.0% efficient (so that 25.0% of the mechanical energy is lost due to friction in the pulley). Neglecting the mass of the pulley, find the time required to lift the piano from the street to the apartment.
52. While running, a person dissipates about 0.60 J of mechanical energy per step per kilogram of body mass. If a 60-kg person develops a power of 70 W during a race, how fast is the person running? (Assume a running step is 1.5 m long.)
53. The electric motor of a model train accelerates the train from rest to 0.620 m/s in 21.0 ms. The total mass of the train is 875 g. Find the average power delivered to the train during its acceleration.
54. When an automobile moves with constant speed down a highway, most of the power developed by the engine is used to compensate for the mechanical energy loss due to frictional forces exerted on the car by the air and the road. If the power developed by an engine is 175 hp, estimate the total frictional force acting on the car when it is moving at a speed of 29 m/s. One horse-power equals 746 W.
55. An older-model car accelerates from 0 to speed v in 10 s. A newer, more powerful sports car of the same mass accelerates from 0 to 2v in the same time period. Assuming the energy coming from the engine appears only as kinetic energy of the cars, compare the power of the two cars.
56. A certain rain cloud at an altitude of 1.75 km contains 3.20×107 kg of water vapor. How long would it take for a 2.70-kW pump to raise the same amount of water from Earth’s surface to the cloud’s position?
57. A 1.50×103-kg car starts from rest and accelerates uniformly to 18.0 m/s in 12.0 s. Assume that air resistance remains constant at 400 N during this time. Find (a) the average power developed by the engine and (b) the instantaneous power output of the engine at t = 12.0 s, just before the car stops accelerating.
58. A 650-kg elevator starts from rest and moves upward for 3.00 s with constant acceleration until it reaches its cruising speed, 1.75 m/s. (a) What is the average power of the elevator motor during this period? (b) How does this amount of power compare with its power during an upward trip with constant speed?
59. The force acting on a particle varies as in Figure P5.59. Find the work done by the force as the particle moves (a) from x = 0 to x = 8.00 m, (b) from x = 8.00 m to x = 10.0 m, and (c) from x = 0 to x = 10.0 m.
60. An object of mass 3.00 kg is subject to a force Fx that varies with position as in Figure P5.60. Find the work done by the force on the object as it moves (a) from x = 0 to x = 5.00 m, (b) from x = 5.00 m to x = 10.0 m, and (c) from x = 10.0 m to x = 15.0 m. (d) If the object has a speed of 0.500 m/s at x = 0, find its speed at x = 5.00 m and its speed at x = 15.0 m.
61. The force acting on an object is given by Fx = (8x - 16) N, where x is in meters. (a) Make a plot of this force versus x from x = 0 to x = 3.00 m. (b) From your graph, find the net work done by the force as the object moves from x = 0 to x = 3.00 m.
62. An outfielder throws a 0.150-kg baseball at a speed of 40.0 m/s and an initial angle of 30.0°. What is the kinetic energy of the ball at the highest point of its motion?
63. A person doing a chin-up weighs 700 N, exclusive of the arms. During the first 25.0 cm of the lift, each arm exerts an upward force of 355 N on the torso. If the upward movement starts from rest, what is the person’s velocity at that point?
64. A boy starts at rest and slides down a frictionless slide as in Figure P5.64. The bottom of the track is a height h above the ground. The boy then leaves the track horizontally, striking the ground a distance d as shown. Using energy methods, determine the initial height H of the boy in terms of h and d.
65. A roller-coaster car of mass 1.50 × 103 kg is initially at the top of a rise at point A. It then moves 35.0 m at an angle of 50.0° below the horizontal to a lower point B. (a) Find both the potential energy of the system when the car is at points A and B and the change in potential energy as the car moves from point A to point B, assuming y = 0 at point B. (b) Repeat part (a), this time choosing y = 0 at point C, which is another 15.0 m down the same slope from point B.
66. A ball of mass m = 1.80 kg is released from rest at a height h = 65.0 cm above a light vertical spring of force constant k as in Figure P5.66a. The ball strikes the top of the spring and compresses it a distance d = 9.00 cm as in Figure P5.66b. Neglecting any energy losses during the collision, find (a) the speed of the ball just as it touches the spring and (b) the force constant of the spring.
67. An archer pulls her bowstring back 0.400 m by exerting a force that increases uniformly from zero to 230 N. (a) What is the equivalent spring constant of the bow? (b) How much work does the archer do in pulling the bow?
68. A block of mass 12.0 kg slides from rest down a frictionless 35.0° incline and is stopped by a strong spring with k = 3.00×104 N/m. The block slides 3.00 m from the point of release to the point where it comes to rest against the spring. When the block comes to rest, how far has the spring been compressed?
69. (a) A 75-kg man steps out a window and falls (from rest) 1.0 m to a sidewalk. What is his speed just before his feet strike the pavement? (b) If the man falls with his knees and ankles locked, the only cushion for his fall is an approximately 0.50-cm give in the pads of his feet. Calculate the average force exerted on him by the ground during this 0.50 cm of travel. This average force is sufficient to cause damage to cartilage in the joints or to break bones.
70. A toy gun uses a spring to project a 5.3-g soft rubber sphere horizontally. The spring constant is 8.0 N/m, the barrel of the gun is 15 cm long, and a constant frictional force of 0.032 N exists between barrel and projectile. With what speed does the projectile leave the barrel if the spring was compressed 5.0 cm for this launch?
71. Two objects (m1 = 5.00 kg and m2 = 3.00 kg) are connected by a light string passing over a light, frictionless pulley as in Figure P5.71. The 5.00-kg object is released from rest at a point h = 4.00 m above the table. (a) Determine the speed of each object when the two pass each other. (b) Determine the speed of each object at the moment the 5.00-kg object hits the table. (c) How much higher does the 3.00-kg object travel after the 5.00-kg object hits the table?
72. In a needle biopsy, a narrow strip of tissue is extracted from a patient with a hollow needle. Rather than being pushed by hand, to ensure a clean cut the needle can be fired into the patient’s body by a spring. Assume the needle has mass 5.60 g, the light spring has force constant 375 N/m, and the spring is originally compressed 8.10 cm to project the needle horizontally without friction. The tip of the needle then moves through 2.40 cm of skin and soft tissue, which exerts a resistive force of 7.60 N on it. Next, the needle cuts 3.50 cm into an organ, which exerts a backward force of 9.20 N on it. Find (a) the maximum speed of the needle and (b) the speed at which a flange on the back end of the needle runs into a stop, set to limit the penetration to 5.90 cm.
73. A 2.00 × 102 -g particle is released from rest at point A on the inside of a smooth hemispherical bowl of radius R = 30.0 cm (Fig. P5.73). Calculate (a) its gravitational potential energy at A relative to B, (b) its kinetic energy at B, (c) its speed at B, (d) its potential energy at C relative to B, and (e) its kinetic energy at C.
74. The particle described in Problem 73 (Fig. P5.73) is released from point A at rest. Its speed at B is 1.50 m/s. (a) What is its kinetic energy at B? (b) How much mechanical energy is lost as a result of friction as the particle goes from A to B? (c) Is it possible to determine μ from these results in a simple manner? Explain.
75. A light spring with spring constant 1.20 × 103 N/m hangs from an elevated support. From its lower end hangs a second light spring, which has spring constant 1.80 × 103 N/m. A 1.50-kg object hangs at rest from the lower end of the second spring. (a) Find the total extension distance of the pair of springs. (b) Find the effective spring constant of the pair of springs as a system. We describe these springs as being in series. Hint: Consider the forces on each spring separately.
76. Symbolic Version of Problem 75. A light spring with spring constant k1 hangs from an elevated support. From its lower end hangs a second light spring, which has spring constant k2. An object of mass m hangs at rest from the lower end of the second spring. (a) Find the total extension distance x of the pair of springs in terms of the two displacements x1 and x2. (b) Find the effective spring constant of the pair of springs as a system. We describe these springs as being in series.
77. In terms of saving energy, bicycling and walking are far more efficient means of transportation than is travel by automobile. For example, when riding at 10.0 mi/h, a cyclist uses food energy at a rate of about 400 kcal/h above what he would use if he were merely sitting still. (In exercise physiology, power is often measured in kcal/h rather than in watts. Here, 1 kcal = 1 nutritionist’s Calorie = 4186 J.) Walking at 3.00 mi/h requires about 220 kcal/h. It is interesting to compare these values with the energy consumption required for travel by car. Gasoline yields about 1.30 × 108 J/gal. Find the fuel economy in equivalent miles per gallon for a person (a) walking and (b) bicycling.
78. Energy is conventionally measured in Calories as well as in joules. One Calorie in nutrition is 1 kilocalorie, which we define in Chapter 11 as 1 kcal = 4186 J. Metabolizing 1 gram of fat can release 9.00 kcal. A student decides to try to lose weight by exercising. She plans to run up and down the stairs in a football stadium as fast as she can and as many times as necessary. Is this in itself a practical way to lose weight? To evaluate the program, suppose she runs up a flight of 80 steps, each 0.150 m high, in 65.0 s. For simplicity, ignore the energy she uses in coming down (which is small). Assume that a typical efficiency for human muscles is 20.0%. This means that when your body converts 100 J from metabolizing fat, 20 J goes into doing mechanical work (here, climbing stairs). The remainder goes into internal energy. Assume the student’s mass is 50.0 kg. (a) How many times must she run the flight of stairs to lose 1 pound of fat? (b) What is her average power output, in watts and in horsepower, as she is running up the stairs?
79. A ski jumper starts from rest 50.0 m above the ground on a frictionless track and flies off the track at an angle of 45.0° above the horizontal and at a height of 10.0 m above the level ground. Neglect air resistance. (a) What is her speed when she leaves the track? (b) What is the maximum altitude she attains after leaving the track? (c) Where does she land relative to the end of the track?
80. A 5.0-kg block is pushed 3.0 m up a vertical wall with constant speed by a constant force of magnitude F applied at an angle of θ = 30° with the horizontal, as shown in Figure P5.80. If the coefficient of kinetic friction between block and wall is 0.30, determine the work done by (a) F, (b) the force of gravity, and (c) the normal force between block and wall. (d) By how much does the gravitational potential energy increase during the block’s motion?
81. A child’s pogo stick (Fig. P5.81) stores energy in a spring (k = 2.50 × 104 N/m). At position A (x1 = -0.100 m), the spring compression is a maximum and the child is momentarily at rest. At position B (x = 0), the spring is relaxed and the child is moving upward. At position C, the child is again momentarily at rest at the top of the jump. Assuming that the combined mass of child and pogo stick is 25.0 kg, (a) calculate the total energy of the system if both potential energies are zero at x = 0, (b) determine x2, (c) calculate the speed of the child at x = 0, (d) determine the value of x for which the kinetic energy of the system is a maximum, and (e) obtain the child’s maximum upward speed.
82. A hummingbird is able to hover because, as the wings move downward, they exert a downward force on the air. Newton’s third law tells us that the air exerts an equal and opposite force (upward) on the wings. The average of this force must be equal to the weight of the bird when it hovers. If the wings move through a distance of 3.5 cm with each stroke, and the wings beat 80 times per second, determine the work performed by the wings on the air in 1 minute if the mass of the hummingbird is 3.0 grams.
83. In the dangerous “sport” of bungee jumping, a daring student jumps from a hot-air balloon with a specially designed elastic cord attached to his waist. The unstretched length of the cord is 25.0 m, the student weighs 700 N, and the balloon is 36.0 m above the surface of a river below. Calculate the required force constant of the cord if the student is to stop safely 4.00 m above the river.
84. The masses of the javelin, discus, and shot are 0.80 kg, 2.0 kg, and 7.2 kg, respectively, and record throws in the corresponding track events are about 98 m, 74 m, and 23 m, respectively. Neglecting air resistance, (a) calculate the minimum initial kinetic energies that would produce these throws, and (b) estimate the average force exerted on each object during the throw, assuming the force acts over a distance of 2.0 m. (c) Do your results suggest that air resistance is an important factor?
85. A truck travels uphill with constant velocity on a highway with a 7.0° slope. A 50-kg package sits on the floor of the back of the truck and does not slide, due to a static frictional force. During an interval in which the truck travels 340 m, (a) what is the net work done on the package? What is the work done on the package by (b) the force of gravity, (c) the normal force, and (d) the friction force?
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